Tower of London
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Architect unknown
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Location London, England   map
Date 1070 to 1090   timeline
Building Type castle, fortress, prison
 Construction System bearing masonry
Climate temperate
Context urban
Style Medieval English
Notes The ultimate castle keep of the British Empire, in London by the Tower Bridge across the Thames river.


Photo, exterior, side elevation of the White Tower

Photo, exterior

Photo, exterior




Plan Drawing

Plan Drawing

Section Drawing

Site Plan Drawing



Perspective Drawing

More drawings available on The GBC CD-ROM.   Contributions appreciated.

3D Model
3D Massing Model (DesignWorkshop 3dmf)

Model Viewing Instructions
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Discussion Tower of London Commentary

"The greatest castles of the period had stone keeps. The Tower of London assumed its form as a 'concentric' castle, with successive lines of fortification, only after several reigns. Here, the rectangular keep of three storeys—the topmost was divided into two, later on—28 m (92 ft) in height, stands in the centre of an inner bailey, surrounded by a wall with thirteen towers (c. 1250), which is, in its turn, enclosed by an outer bailey and wall with eight towers and an encircling moat (c. 1280)."

— Sir Banister Fletcher. A History of Architecture. p372.

Sources on Tower of London

Roger H. Clark and Michael Pause. Precedents in Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985. clustering diagram, p201. — Updated edition available at

Sir Banister Fletcher. A History of Architecture. London: The Butterworth Group, 1987. ISBN 0-408-01587-X. LC 86-31761. NA200.F63 1987. discussion, p372. block plan drawing, fig g, p370. plan drawing of white tower at third level, fig e, p370. perspective drawing of white tower from s.e., fig d, p370. perspective drawing of 1918, fig b, p370. perspective drawing of 1597, fig a, p370. — The classic text of architectural history. Expanded 1996 edition available at

Leonora Ison. English Architecture Through the Ages, Secular Building. New York: Coward-McCann, 1967. LC 66-24565. NA961.I8 1967. section drawing, p8. plan drawing, p8.

Duane Siegrist, University of Oregon. Slide from photographer's collection, June 1993. PCD.3236.1011.0837.018.

Alene Stickles, University of Oregon. Slide from photographer's collection, June 1993. PCD.2365.1012.0634.011, Bloody Tower, exterior door. PCD.2365.1012.0634.010, Bloody Tower, bedroom. PCD.2365.1012.0634.009, White Tower, stairs. PCD.2365.1012.0634.008, White Tower, chapel aisle. PCD.2365.1012.0634.007, White Tower. PCD.2365.1012.0634.006, Traitor's Gate. PCD.2365.1012.0634.005, View from outside the wall.

Kevin Matthews. The Great Buildings Collection on CD-ROM. Artifice, 2001. ISBN 0-9667098-4-5.— Available at  Find books about Tower of London


Web Resources
Links on Tower of London

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